Working from home rather than the employer’s workplace. A growing number of people in certain types of jobs such as sales and marketing, accounting, proof-reading and editing, are working on a permanent basis from home. This has been enabled through developments in ITC, notably telephones, mobile phones, faxes, computers, laptop computers and email. Home working or teleworking can save on office space and reduce fixed costs eg rent and rates. It can also reduce the cost of travel expenses (for the employer and / employee) and reduce the need to invest in social facilities. It can also have a positive effect on motivation as employees feel trusted to get on with the job which can boost their self esteem. It can also help to alleviate stress, especially the stress associated with commuting during rush hour traffic, for example. It may also be more productive as there are fewer interruptions and employees can spend more time working and less time travelling. From a social perspective the reduction in travel to and from work can cut down on air pollution. On the negative side, however, it can be expensive to provide the employees with the necessary technology, difficult to monitor working hours, and lead to worker isolation with workers being out of touch with organisational goals. The lack of social interaction can also restrict the achievement of social needs and negatively affect motivation. The possibility of home working on a permanent basis is also, obviously, not possible if the job requires direct contact with customers.