The application of scientific principles to the process of management. Observing workers, recording and timing the tasks they carry out (later known as time and motion / work study). It involved the following: Identifying the most efficient workers and investigating how they achieve greater efficiency in order to establish the quickest and best way of doing jobs; Breaking tasks down into small parts that can be done speedily and repeatedly and dividing the workforce up so that individuals specialise in carrying out one particular task instead of several; Designing equipment to increase the speed with which tasks can be completed; Establishing strict instructions for employees to follow when completing tasks in the future; Supervising workers to ensure instructions on how to complete tasks are closely followed; Devising a payment system that rewards workers who meet or exceed the output targets set but penalises those who will not or cannot achieve the productivity level believed to be achievable (payment by piecework). Whilst work measurement and piece rate pay can help maximise efficiency and effectiveness, Taylor’s approach has been criticised for treating people like machines and assuming the only reason they work is for money.