One-off costs incurred by a business just starting up or launching a new product or service. Start-up costs will, obviously, vary according to the nature of the business and the products / services it provides, but might include: premises eg factory, shop, office (if bought outright as opposed to rented); machinery and equipment eg office equipment such as computers and photocopiers (if bought outright as opposed to leased or purchased on hire purchase); vehicles (if bought outright as opposed to leased or rented); fixtures and fittings eg carpets, curtain rails; furniture eg desks and chairs; market research to investigate potential demand for the new product / service and identify the marketing mix required to meet customer needs; initial recruitment, selection and training of new staff to ensure the right number of people are recruited and trained to meet anticipated customer requirements; initial advertising of the opening to make sure people know the business exists and encourage them to buy the product or service; initial design costs to develop the right product or establish a company website; decorating costs; signage for the new premises; initial stock for production or display.