Involves the launch of a product on a limited scale in a representative part of the market to assess consumer reaction and forecast future sales and enable any necessary modifications to be made prior to a full launch. Test marketing can be particularly effective in determining whether a new product is likely to achieve the desired results. Although it incurs costs and, arguably, may not reflect the whole market, in general it can save huge costs in the long run by helping to improve the product before a national launch, to ensure people buy it.