s based on the belief that a person’s motivation to behave in a certain way is dependent upon two factors: how attractive the outcome or anticipated reward resulting from a certain action is, and the perceived likelihood that the action will achieve the hoped-for outcome. From this theory he developed the following equation: Force (motivation) = Valence x Expectancy. NB: Force = strength of the urge to act / behave in a particular way, the degree of motivation; Valence = perceived attractiveness / value of the outcome; Expectancy = perceived likelihood that outcome will be achieved. This theory is based on an individual’s perception of reality. The valence of any outcome will differ between individuals and over time. In addition, expectancy will depend on the behaviour of an organisation and the experience and prejudices of the person concerned. For example, if an employee is told that he or she will be given a bonus if they increase output by a certain percentage, additional pay may or may not be valued highly by the employee. Even if they did favour increased pay for the extra effort required, he or she may have heard similar promises previously that came to nothing. Thus, the individual may not opt to increase their output. In conclusion, high valence and low expectancy will not produce high motivation. Managers must analyse the motives of employees, and provide them with: goals that are achievable and realistic; rewards that the individual perceives as important, rather than what the manager perceives as important.